Alkaline Water Studies and Links

Alkaline Water Benefits Studies and Medical reference Links

1. Study on the effect of alkaline water on blood and urine pH:

52 healthy male volunteers were given clinical examinations when their bodies were in a state of metabolic acidosis. Half of them drank 2 liters per day of alkaline water from a water ionizer. The other half (control group) drank plain water.

  • Doctors tested blood pH for both groups
  • Drinking alkaline water raised the blood pH 40 - 70% within the healthy range
  • Drinking plain water had no effect on blood pH

Ostojic, Sergej, and Marko Stonanovic. "Hydrogen-Rich Water Affected Blood Alkalinity in Physically Active Men." Research in Sports Medicine: An International Journal, 06 Jan 2014. Web. 20 Feb 2014. <http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/15438627.2013.852092>.

 2. Study on the effect of mixing alkaline water and Gatorade

11 people were involved, 9 men and 2 women. The study examined the effect of alkaline water and Gatorade on people running. Half the study group drank alkaline water with a negative ORP mixed with Gatorade, the other half drank plain water with Gatorade:

  • Subjects that drank alkaline water with negative ORP experienced a reduction in the perceived effort needed to run at 8MPH
  • Subjects that drank plain water and Gatorade did not experience a reduction in the perceived effort to run at 8 MPH
  • Subjects that drank alkaline water with negative ORP had higher serum bicarbonates (the body’s buffer against acidity) Reduced rate of blood lactate accumulation during exercise (less burning feeling in the muscles)
  • Subjects that drank plain water and Gatorade did not experience the same increase in serum bicarbonates nor reduced blood lactate accumulation

Ostojic, S.M. “Al. Drinks with alkaline negative oxidative reduction potential improve exercise performance in physically active men and women: double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial of efficacy and safety.” Serbian Journal of Sports Sciences. 5.3 (2011): 83-89. <http://www.sjss-sportsacademy.edu.rs/archive/details/drinks-with-alkaline-negative-oxidative-reduction-potential-improve-exercise-performance-in-physically-active-men-and-women-double-blind-randomized-placebo-controlled-cross-over-trial-of-efficacy-and-safety-223.html>.

3. Study on the effect of alkaline water on bone loss

30 women were divided into two groups: One group drank alkaline water rich in calcium, the second group drank acidic water rich in calcium. Both groups were getting enough calcium in their diet. Researchers measured and compared the rate of bone loss and urine pH in the two groups:

  • Group that drank alkaline water has reduced bone loss and increased urine pH
  • Group that drank acidic water had no change in rate of bone loss, and no change in urine pH

Wynn, E, MA Krieg, JM Aeschlimann, and P Burckhardt. "Alkaline mineral water lowers bone resorption even in calcium sufficiency: alkaline mineral water and bone metabolism." Bone. Elsevier, 27 Oct 2008. Web. 1 Jul 2013. <http://www.thebonejournal.com/article/S8756-3282(08)00781-3/abstract>.

4. Study on the effect of alkaline water on bone loss

Alkaline water decreases bone loss and increases bone mineral density. In several studies in humans, bicarbonate-rich alkali mineral waters with low potential renal acid load values were shown to decrease bone resorption markers and parathyroid hormone levels. The effect of drinking alkaline water was shown to be stronger than that of acidic calcium-rich mineral waters. These decreases in bone loss were seen even in people who got enough calcium in their diets.

Burckhardt, Peter. "The Effect of the Alkali Load of Mineral Water on Bone Metabolism." The Journal of Nutrition. American Society for Nutrition, n.d. Web. 26 Mar 2014. <http://jn.nutrition.org/content/138/2/435S.long>.

5. Study on the effect of alkaline water on blood pressure

This study showed that consumption of alkaline mineral water by people with low magnesium or calcium levels may decrease blood pressure.

Rylander, Ragnar, and Maurice Arnaud. "Mineral water intake reduces blood pressure among subjects with low urinary magnesium and calcium levels." BMC Public Health. BMC Public Health, 30 Nov 2004. Web. 1 Jul 2013. <http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2458/4/56> http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2458/4/56>.

6. Study on the ability of alkaline water to reduce oxidative damage caused by free radicals and Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)

In the laboratory, Scientists demonstrated that alkaline water can prevent damage to DNA. The study also found that combining alkaline water with Vitamin C triples the antioxidant potential of Vitamin C. Lee, MY, YK Kim, and et al. "Electrolyzed-reduced water protects against oxidative damage to DNA, RNA, and protein." Springer Link. Humana Press, 01 Nov 2006. Web. 2 Jul 2013. <http://link.springer.com/article/10.1385/ABAB:135:2:133>.

7. Study to determine if alkaline water made by a water ionizer contains “active hydrogen” (Note: Active Hydrogen doesn’t exist in nature)

Alkaline water made by a water ionizer has been shown to have antioxidant potential in lab studies. Claims that the antioxidant benefit of alkaline water come from “active hydrogen” are false because alkaline water doesn’t contain “active hydrogen”.The antioxidant potential of alkaline water may derived from ordinary molecular hydrogen (hydrogen gas).

Hiraoka, A, M Takemoto, and et al. "Studies on the Properties and Real Existence of Aqueous Solution Systems that are Assumed to Have Antioxidant Activities by the Action of "Active Hydrogen." Journal of Health Science. Journal of Health Science, 09 Jun 2004. Web. 2 Jul 2013. <http://image.sciencenet.cn/olddata/kexue.com.cn/upload/blog/file/2009/8/200986121047259319.pdf>.

 8. Clinical Study to evaluate the effects of alkaline water on people who have never drank alkaline water before

This study examined 4 test subjects who drank alkaline water from a water ionizer over a two month period:

  • Subjects lost an average of 12 pounds over two months
  • Subjects bodies discharged 10 Heavy Metals
  • Reduced blood pressure
  • Alkaline water had a ‘sparing effect’ on body antioxidant levels, resulting in improved antioxidant status
  • Reduced levels of bone loss

Abraham, Guy, and Jorge Flebas. "The effect of daily consumption of 2 liters of electrolyzed water for 2 months on body composition and several physiological parameters in four obese subjects: a preliminary report." Highbeam Research. Original Internist, 01 Sep 2011. Web. 2 Jul 2013. <http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-269433201.html>.

9. Lab research shows alkaline water has the potential to protect brain cells from oxidative damage.

This study measured the ability of alkaline water to prevent oxidative damage to brain cells. Alkaline water is proposed as the best way to protect the brain from the oxidative damage that leads to alzheimer’s and dementia because alkaline water passes through the brain/blood barrier, while other antioxidants are blocked by it.

Yan, H, and et al. "The neuroprotective effects of electrolyzed reduced water and its model water containing molecular hydrogen and Pt nanoparticles." BMC Proceedings. Europeans Society for Animal Cell Technology, 22 Nov 2011. Web. 29 Oct 2013. <http://www.biomedcentral.com/1753-6561/5/S8/P69>.

10. Lab research shows alkaline water can reduce oxidative damage to the liver

This study used mice to determine if alkaline water can reduce oxidative damage to the liver caused by free radicals and Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). Alkaline water was shown to significantly reduce oxidative damage to the mice’s livers. Oxidative damage is done to the liver by diseases like hepatitis, and is also caused by excessive alcohol consumption.

Tsai, Chia-Fang, Yu-Wen Hsu, and et al. "Hepatoprotective effect of electrolyzed reduced water against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in mice." Sciencedirect. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 01 Aug 2009. Web. 7 Nov 2013. <http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0278691509002464>.

11. Lab research shows that alkaline water can protect brain cells from oxidative damage

The brain is the most vulnerable organ to damage from Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) because the brain has a higher rate of oxygen consumption and glucose utilization compared to other organs. Alkaline water was demonstrated to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) in several cell types. Alkaline water is shown to be the best way to protect the brain from oxidative damage because it is the only antioxidant that can pass the brain/blood barrier.

Kashiwagi, Taichi, and Et Al. "Electrochemically Reduced Water Protects Neural Cells from Oxidative Damage." Electrochemically Reduced Water Protects Neural Cells from Oxidative Damage. Hindawi Publishing, 14 Oct. 2014. Web. 12 Nov. 2014. <http://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2014/869121/abs/>.

12. Report: Centers for Disease Control (CDC) estimates that 3 out of 4 Americans are chronically dehydrated

Chronic dehydration is a factor in poor health. 3 out of 4 Americans don’t drink enough water each day to be properly hydrated

Ericson, John. "75% of Americans May Suffer From Chronic Dehydration, According to Doctors." Medical Daily. Medical Daily, 03 Jul 2013. Web. 15 Nov 2013. <http://www.medicaldaily.com/75-americans-may-suffer-chronic-dehydration-according-doctors-247393>.

Two Studies: Changing your diet to an alkaline diet protects DNA from oxidative damage and prevents disease

13. Changing your diet to a more alkaline diet such as the Mediterranean diet lowers levels of free radicals in the body and improves antioxidant status. Eating an alkaline diet is associated with a significant reduction in your chances of developing diseases like diabetes and cancer that are related to acidic diet

Ornish, Dean, Jue Lin, and et al. "Increased telomerase activity and comprehensive lifestyle changes: a pilot study." ProQuest. Lancet Oncology, [November, 2008] Vol 9 No. 11. Web. 5 Nov 2013. <http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lanonc/article/PIIS1470-2045(08)70234-1/fulltext>.

Ornish, Dean, Jue Lin, and et al. "Effect of comprehensive lifestyle changes on telomerase activity and telomere length in men with biopsy-proven low-risk prostate cancer: 5-year follow-up of a descriptive pilot study" Lancet. Lancet Oncology, 01 Oct 2013. Web. 5 Nov 2013. <http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lanonc/article/PIIS1470-2045(13)70366-8/abstract>.

14. Blind Taste Test: Alkaline water tastes better than plain water

Mineral water was put through a water ionizer, and then the taste of it was compared to the same mineral water that had not been run through an ionizer. The water from the water ionizer tasted better: Sweeter and more refreshing

  • Water ionizers make water taste better - makes water easier to drink
  • Better tasting water makes it easier to stay hydrated

Koseki, M, Y Tanaka, and et al. "Effect of pH on the Taste of Alkaline Electrolyzed Water." Wiley Online Library. Journal of Food Science, n.d. Web. 3 Jul 2013. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17995745>.

15. Clinical Trial to compare alkaline water to plain water for hydration of cyclists

Ten male cyclists were divided into two groups. One group drank mineral hydrate water (same as an ionizer) the other group drank regular mineral water. Both groups performed a dehydrating bout of cycling:

  • Group that drank mineral hydrate water re-hydrated faster, easier and more thoroughly

Heil, P and Seifert, J. Influence of bottled water on rehydration following a dehydrating bout of cycling exercise. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition Springerlink July 2009. <http://www.springerlink.com/content/kn41764j65165u3x/fulltext.pdf>.

16. Clinical Trial to find out if drinking alkaline water affects blood and urine pH

38 people were divided into two groups. One group drank alkaline water, the control group drank plain mineral water. Blood and urine pH, plus hydration status was tested:

  • Group that drank mineral hydrate alkaline water had higher urine and blood pH, plus remained better hydrated during exercise
  • Control group experienced none of the benefits the mineral hydrate rich alkaline water group did.

Heil, D. "Acid-base balance and hydration status following consumption of mineral-based alkaline bottled water." Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 13 Sep 2010. Web. 26 Mar 2014. <http://www.jissn.com/content/7/1/29>.

 17. Article: Cold weather increases your risk of dehydration

Many people think that you’re more likely to become dehydrated in summer because it’s hot. The opposite is actually true. You’re more likely to become dehydrated in winter because cold shuts down your sense of thirst.

Keeler, Sharon. "Cold Weather Increases Risk Of Dehydration." Cold Weather Increases Risk Of Dehydration. University of New Hampshire, 28 Jan. 2005. Web. 25 Nov. 2014. <http://www.unh.edu/news/news_releases/2005/january/sk_050128cold.html>.

18. Study: How water pH affects which minerals your body absorbs

Scientists tested hair samples from 47 women who lived in areas in Northern Sweden with acidic water, and hair samples from 43 women who lived in areas of Southern Sweden with alkaline water:

  • Women who drank alkaline water had higher levels of calcium, strontium, molybdenum, iron, and selenium (nutrients( in their hair
  • Women who drank alkaline water had higher levels of mercury, boron and barium in their hair
  • Drinking alkaline water may protect you from the harmful effects of mercury

Rosborg, I, B Nihlgard, and L Gerhardsson. "Hair element concentrations in females in one acid and one alkaline area in southern Sweden." PubMed NCBI. Ambio, n.d. Web. 3 Jul 2013. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14703901>.

19. Study: Food may not provide enough trace minerals for good nutrition

Most diets lack some necessary trace minerals. Those minerals can be gotten from drinking water.

Misner, B. Food Alone May Not Provide Sufficient Micronutrients for Preventing Deficiency. J International Society of Sports Nutrition. 2006; 3(1:( 51–55. Published online 2006 June 5. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2129155/>.

20. World Health Organization: Water as a source of mineral nutrition: Many studies were reviewed by the World Health Organization (WHO) to evaluate the ability of the body to absorb minerals from water:

  • The body absorbs minerals from water 30% faster and easier than it does from food or supplements

Ong, Choon. "Minerals from drinking-water: Bioavailability for various world populations and health implications." WHO | Water Sanitation Health. World Health Organization, 17 Aug 2004. Web. 4 Jul 2013. <http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/nutbioavailability/en/>.

21. World Health Organization: Water as a source of mineral nutrition:

This study found that for good health, you should get between 10 - 20% of your daily needs for minerals from drinking water. The study found that people who drank soft water (lacking minerals) faced significantly higher risk of heart attack and stroke

World Health Organization, . "Nutrients in Drinking Water ." WHO | Nutrients in drinking water. World Health Organization, n.d. Web. 5 Jul 2013. <http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/nutrientsbegin.pdf>.

22, Mineral content of tap water vs. bottled water

This study compared the mineral content of various bottled waters and tap waters. The study found that many bottled water lacked minerals, and that much North American tap water actually contained healthy amounts of minerals, making tap water a better choice for health over bottled water.

Azoulay, Arik, Phillipe Garzon, and Mark Eisenberg. "Comparison of the Mineral Content of Tap Water and Bottled Waters." US National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health. Journal of General Internal Medicine, n.d. Web. 5 Jul 2013. <https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1495189/>.

23. Largest ever study on drinking water for heart health:

Multiple studies show that people who drink water with minerals in it have better heart health than people who drink water that lacks minerals. Over 120,000 people were evaluated by the studies used in this review:

  • Quote from study: “The more alkaline the water, the greater the protective effect on the arteries

Gumashta, J, R Gumashta, and et al. "Hard water and heart: the story revisited." IOSR Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences. IOSR Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences, n.d. Web. 5 Jul 2013. <http://iosrjournals.org/iosr-jpbs/papers/vol1-issue1/B0110720.pdf>.

24. Study on the antioxidant effect of manganese - a trace mineral:

You only need a few micrograms of manganese each day, but that tiny amount has a powerful antioxidant effect. If it is present in your water supply, you can get all of your daily need for manganese by drinking water.

Coassin, Mariagraza, Fulvio Ursini, and Alberto Bindoli. "Antioxidant effect of manganese." Science Direct. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, n.d. Web. 5 Jul 2013. <https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0003986192902822>.

25. Lab study: Alkaline water helps beneficial probiotic bacteria thrive in the gut by reducing oxidation

In lab testing, it was shown that beneficial probiotic bacteria thrive in water with antioxidant oxidation reduction potential (ORP) while harmful bacteria thrive in water that is an oxidant.

  • Study authors recommend ionized alkaline water from a water ionizer for restoring the balance of healthy probiotic bacteria in the gut

Vorobjeva, N.V.. "Selective stimulation of the growth of anaerobic microflora in the human intestinal tract by electrolyzed reducing water." Medical Hypotheses. Elsevier, 14 Jun 2004. Web. 5 Jul 2013. <http://www.medical-hypotheses.com/article/S0306-9877(04)00489-X/abstract>.

26. Lab study: Alkaline water hydrates better because it penetrates cells easier because it is the right pH to pass through aquaporin channels

Yoshichika, Kitagawa, Liu Chengwei , and Ding Xiaodong. "The influence of natural mineral water on aquaporin water permeability and human natural killer cell activity." Science Direct. Science Direct, 27 May 2011. Web. 5 Jul 2013. <https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0006291X11007005>.

27. Report: Aquaporin channels in cell walls

Aquaporins are channels in the wall of cells that allow water and nutrients to enter cells, and wastes to exit. This report describes what they are, and how they work.

Bowen, R. "Aquaporins: Water Channels." Aquaporins. Colorado State University, 28 Nov 2005. Web. 5 Jul 2013. <http://www.vivo.colostate.edu/hbooks/molecules/aquaporins.html>.

28. Lab study: Aquaporin channels

Osmosis alone doesn’t account for the total uptake of water and nutrients by cells. This study showed that aquaporins are primarily responsible for the movement of water and nutrients into and out of cells.

Koznon, David, Yasui Masato, and et al. "Aquaporin water channels: atomic structure molecular dynamics meet clinical medicine." Journal of Clinical Investigation. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 01 Jun 2002. Web. 5 Jul 2013. <http://www.jci.org/articles/view/15851>.

29. Lab study on Aquaporin 3 which shows that it is controlled by pH

Study showed that certain aquaporins - tiny channels in cell walls - that allow water to enter the cell, are controlled by the pH of the water: 

  • Alkaline pH allows water to flow through the aquaporin and into the cell
  • Acidic pH causes aquaporins to close, and not allow water into cell

Zeuthen, Thomas, and Dan Klaerke. "Transport of Water and Glycerol in Aquaporin 3 Is Gated by H ." The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Web. 5 Jul 2013. <http://www.jbc.org/content/274/31/21631.long> http://www.jbc.org/content/274/31/21631.long>.

30. Report from Harvard Health on drinking water

All beverages hydrate to some extent, but water is the best choice according to Harvard Health. Go easy on the juice/soda/milk.

Harvard School of Public Health, . "Healthy Drinks." Harvard School of Public Health. Harvard School of Public Health. Web. 5 Jul 2013. <http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/healthy-drinks/>.

 31. CNN Report on drinking water to lose weight

Excerpt from CNN’s “Ask an Expert” series by Dr. Melina Jampolis which answers the question: “Can drinking water help me lose weight?” The answer given is yes, as long as common sense guidelines are followed

Jampolis, Melinda. "Can drinking lots of water help you lose weight?." CNN. Cable News Network, 10 Apr 2009. Web. 5 Jul 2013. <http://www.cnn.com/2009/HEALTH/expert.q.a/04/10/water.losing.weight.jampolis/index.html>.

 32. Lab study of alkaline water as an antioxidant

This study explained how alkaline water can work as an antioxidant due to an increase in the ionic product (concentration of charged particles) in the water.

Hanaoka, Kokichi, Sun Dongxu, and et al. "The mechanism of the enhanced antioxidant effects against superoxide anion radicals of reduced water produced by electrolysis." Science Direct. Science Direct, 01 Jan 2004. Web. 5 Jul 2013. <https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301462203002497>.

33. Lab study of alkaline water as an antioxidant

This study showed that alkaline water doesn’t show antioxidant activity by itself - it must be combined with a proton donor like Vitamin C. When combined with Vitamin C, alkaline water triples the antioxidant power or Vitamin C.

Hanaoka, Kokichi. "Antioxidant effects of reduced water produced by electrolysis of sodium chloride solutions." Springer Link. Journal of Applied Electrochemistry, n.d. Web. 5 Jul 2013. <http://link.springer.com/article/10.1023/A:1013825009701>.

34. Lab study: Study shows that alkaline water can neutralize some stomach acid. Alkaline water also neutralizes pepsin - the enzyme that triggers Gastro-Intestinal Reflux

Koufamn, J.A, and N. Johnston. "Potential Benefits of PH 8.8 Alkaline Drinking Water as an Adjunct in the Treatment of Reflux Disease." National Center for Biotechnology Information. U.S. National Library of Medicine, 1 July 2012. Web. 24 Apr. 2015. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22844861>.

35. Health Article by Dr Russell Jaffe on his system for treating autoimmune disorders by balancing the body’s pH

Dr Russell Jaffe treats autoimmune disorders with an alkaline diet including alkaline water, and lab testing. His goal is to restore a healthy pH balance

Jaffe, Russell. "The Alkaline Way: Integrative Management of Autoimmune Conditions." Health Studies Collegium. Health Studies Collegium, n.d. Web. 5 Jul 2013. <http://www.healthstudiescollegium.org/docf/JaffeAlkWayTLDP_1110Edit.pdf>.

36. Review of studies that shows how the body’s ability to neutralize acidity declines with age

As you age, your body’s ability to neutralize acidity declines. As the body’s alkaline buffer decreases, levels of harmful oxidants like free radicals and other reactive oxygen species increases.

Frassetto, L. and Sebastian, A. Age and systemic acid-base equilibrium: analysis of published data, Journal of Gerontology, Advanced Biological Science and Medical Science, 51: B91-99, 1996. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8548506>.

37. Health Article by Dr Russell Jaffe on his system for treating autoimmune disorders by balancing the body’s pH

The Northern Manhattan Study (NOMAS) is a study of the population of Washington Heights in Northern Manhattan. NOMAS is the first study of its kind to focus on stroke risk factors in whites, blacks, and Hispanics

Elkind, Mitchell, Bernadette Albaba, Ralph Sacco, and et al. Northern Manhattan Study. Columbia University | Division of Stroke and Critical Care, n.d. Web. 5 Jul 2013. <http://columbianomas.org/study.html> http://columbianomas.org/study.html>.

38. Study on the people of Okinawa - among the longest living people in the world

The Okinawa Centenarian study looked at the centenarians of Okinawa Japan to discover the secret to their longevity.

Suzuki,, M, B Willcox,, and et al. "Okinawa Centenarian Study." Okinawa Centenarian Study. Okinawa Centenarian Study. Web. 19 Sep 2013. <http://www.okicent.org/study.html> http://www.okicent.org/study.html>.

39. Sleep flushes oxidative wastes generated by brain metabolism from the brain

This study showed that the brain shrinks while you sleep, increasing the interstitial space between neurons. This allows spinal fluid to flush metabolic wastes from the brain.

Xie, L, , and et al. "Sleep Drives Metabolite Clearance from the Adult Brain." Science. American Association for the Advancement of Science, 18 Oct 2013. Web. 4 Nov 2013. <http://www.sciencemag.org/content/342/6156/373.short>.

 40. Alkaline water fights extreme dehydration in firefighters: Study

This study evaluated the effect of alkaline water on firefighters who were dehydrated after a simulated firefighting exercise. Alkaline water was found to have a “profound influence on the firefighters hydration status.

Holsworth, R, , and et al. "Effect of Hydration on Whole Blood Viscosity in Firefighters." NCBI. PubMed, Aug, 2013. Web. 27 Dec 2013. < http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23981371>.

41. Mild dehydration affects mood

This study found that degraded mood, increased perception of task difficulty, lower concentration, and headache symptoms resulted from 1.36% dehydration in females. The study concluded that women should pay careful attention to their hydration status, because mild dehydration has a much more significant effect than previously believed

Armstrong, Lawrence E. Matthew S Ganio. and et al. "Mild Dehydration Affects Mood in Healthy Young Women." The Journal of Nutriton, 21 Dec. 2011. Web. 18 July 2014. <http://jn.nutrition.org/content/142/2/382.full> http://jn.nutrition.org/content/142/2/382.full>.

42. Vitamin C acts as both an oxidant and an antioxidant

This study evaluated the effect of Vitamin C on DNA, and found that under some circumstances, Vitamin C may act as an oxidant. However, the study also noted that it’s results may have been influenced by the method used to extract DNA samples. The results of this study merely are an interesting observation unless replicated in further research.

Bland, J. “The Pro-oxidant and Antioxidant Effects of Vitamin C.” Nature. June, 1998 Web 3 Feb 2014. <http://www.researchgate.net/publication/13720585_Vitamin_C_exhibits_pro-oxidant_properties/links/09e41505c6cba735e5000000.pdf>.

43. Alkaline water prevents alcohol-induced liver damage in rats

Alkaline water was shown to prevent alcohol-induced liver damage in rats. Alcohol produces high levels of hydrogen peroxide, an oxidant, in the liver. Alkaline water was shown to break down hydrogen peroxide in the liver into water and hydrogen, thereby preventing oxidative damage to the liver.

Seung-Kyu P, et al. “Electrolyzed-reduced water inhibits acute ethanol-induced hangovers in Sprague-Dawley rats.” Biomedical Research, 6 July 2009 Web 31 January 2014. <https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/biomedres/30/5/30_5_263/_pdf>.

Nielson, Forrest. "Magnesium, Inflammation, and Obesity in Chronic Diseas." National Center for Biotechnology Information. U.S. National Library of Medicine, 1 June 2010. Web. 28 July 2015. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20536778/>.

Review study of alkaline water research, concludes that alkaline water should be regulated as a drug.

Henry, Marc, and Jaques Chambron. "Physico-Chemical, Biological and Therapeutic Characteristics of Electrolyzed Reduced Alkaline Water (ERAW)." MDPI. Water, May 2013. Web. 12 Feb. 2016. <http://www.mdpi.com/2073-4441/5/4/2094/htm>.

Review of research conducted in Japan that shows that alkaline water significantly improves digestive conditions

Shirihata, Sanetaka, and Takeke Hamasaki. "Advanced Research on the Health Benefit of Reduced Water ☆." Advanced Research on the Health Benefit of Reduced Water. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 9 Nov. 2011. Web. 15 Feb. 2016. <http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0924224411002408>.

Atsunori Nakao and et al. “Effectiveness of Hydrogen Rich Water on Antioxidant Status of Subjects with Potential Metabolic Syndrome—An Open Label Pilot Study.” Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition, 24 February 2010. Web 28 July 2016.

Health References

1. Liver Detox Reference

This reference explains what substances are detoxified in the liver, and shows which nutrients support the detoxification pathways in the liver.

Healthscope Functional Pathology. “Functional Liver Detoxification Profile (FLDP) Healthscope Functional Pathology." N.D. Web 3 February 2014 <http://www.healthscopepathology.com.au/index.php/download_file/view/176/205/> FunctionalLiverDetoxificationProfile_FLDP-SR.pdf.

2. Exercise slows or stops eye lens opacity

Regular exercise has been shown to reduce lens clouding and can help slow the progress of glaucoma.

Paunksnis, Alvydas, Saulius Kušleika, and Marija Kušleikaitė. "The relationship of the intensity of lens opacity with physical activity." Medicina (Kaunas), n.d. Web. 28 Feb 2014. <http://medicina.kmu.lt/0609/0609-07e.pdf> http://medicina.kmu.lt/0609/0609-07e.pdf>.

3. Exercise slows or stops eye lens opacity

Carlton, Robert. "REVIEW OF THE 2006 UNITED STATES NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL REPORT: FLUORIDE IN DRINKING WATER." US National Research Council, n.d. Web. 11 Apr 2014. <http://media.khi.org/news/documents/2012/07/23/FJ2006_v39_n3_p163-172.pdf>.

"Reduced Thirst after Water Deprivation in Healthy Elderly Men — NEJM." New England Journal of Medicine. New England Journal of Medicine, 20 Sept. 1984. Web. 8 Apr. 2015. <http://www.nejm.org/doi/pdf/10.1056/NEJM198409203111202>.

Van Walleghen, Emily, and Et Al. "Pre-meal Water Consumption Reduces Meal Energy Intake in Older but Not Younger Subjects." Obesity. Obesity Society, 6 Sept. 2012. Web. 8 Apr. 2015. <http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1038/oby.2007.506/full>.

Dennis, Elizabeth, and Et Al. "Water Consumption Increases Weight Loss During a Hypocaloric Diet Intervention in Middle-aged and Older Adults." Obesity. Obestiy Society, 6 Sept. 2012. Web. 8 Apr. 2015. <http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1038/oby.2009.235/full>.

Studies to Review

Nordenau effect

http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4020-9646-4_41

Disease, and Acidity in the Body

1. Milk can increase bone fracture risk in men and women

High milk intake was associated with higher mortality in one cohort of women and in another cohort of men, and with higher fracture incidence in women. This study suggests that high milk consumption may lead to higher fracture risk because milk is acid-forming in the body.

Michaelsson, Karl, Alicia Wolk, and Et Al. "Milk Intake and Risk of Mortality and Fractures in Women and Men: Cohort Studies." The BMJ. BMJ, 28 Oct. 2014. Web. 31 Oct. 2014. <http://www.bmj.com/content/349/bmj.g6015> http://www.bmj.com/content/349/bmj.g6015>.

2. Kidney stones are connected to cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome

This study showed that if you develop kidney stones, you have a higher risk of developing cardiovascular disease.

Kilgore, Christine. "Kidney Stones Linked to CVD, Metabolic Syndrome." Internal Medicine News. Internal Medicine News , 10 Aug 2011. Web. 3 Jul 2013. <http://www.internalmedicinenews.com/index.php?id=514&tx_ttnews%5btt_news%5d=62138&cHash=86edab9dbe>

3. Oxidative stress can cause hair loss

This study examined the role of oxidative stress in hair loss and found that damage from free radicals and Reactive Oxygen Species causes hair to turn grey prematurely and fall out.

Trüeb, Ralph. "Oxidative Stress in Ageing of Hair." National Center for Biotechnology Information. U.S. National Library of Medicine, 29 June 5. Web. 5 Dec. 2014. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2929555/>.

4. Low urine pH linked to Metabolic Syndrome 

This study documented the link between metabolic syndrome and urine pH. The difference between having all of the symptoms of metabolic syndrome, and being in perfect health is just a half a pH! The symptoms of metabolic syndrome are: 

  • High Cholesterol levels
  • Obesity
  • High blood sugar
  • Kidney stones
  • High blood Pressure

Maalouf, N, M Cameron, and et al. Low Urine pH: A Novel Feature of the Metabolic Syndrome. "Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology." American Society of Nephrology, 29 May 2007. Web. 2 Jul 2013. <http://cjasn.asnjournals.org/content/2/5/883.full.pdf>.

5. Magnesium loss increase as urine pH falls

This study shows that the body’s pH balance - measured as urine pH - affects the amount of magnesium excreted by the kidneys. The results of this study suggest that having an overly acidic pH balance may cause an unsafe loss of magnesium

Rylander, Ragner, Thomas Remer, and et al. "Acid-Base Status Affects Renal Magnesium Losses in Healthy, Elderly Persons." The Journal of Nutrition. American Society for Nutrition, n.d. Web. 2 Jul 2013. <http://jn.nutrition.org/content/136/9/2374.full>.

6. Reference: Common causes of Acid Reflux

Comprehensive guide to the causes of acid reflux from Web MD

Maddox, Thomas. "Heartburn/GERD Health Center."Common Causes of Acid Reflux Disease, Hiatal Hernia, Pregnancy, Foods, and more." Web MD, 24 Feb 2012. Web. 2 Jul 2013. <http://www.webmd.com/heartburn-gerd/guide/common-causes-acid-reflux-disease>.

7. Reference: Foods to avoid if you have osteoporosis

List of foods you should avoid if you have osteoporosis, or are at risk for developing it

NA, . "Osteoporosis Diet Dangers: Foods to Avoid." WebMD. WebMD, 09 Jan 2008. Web. 2 Jul 2013. <http://www.webmd.com/osteoporosis/living-with-osteoporosis-7/diet-dangers>.

8. Review of studies that connects the dementia epidemic in the US to acidic diets and oxidative damage in the body

Dementia is at epidemic levels in the US. Studies have shown that dementia develops along with other degenerative diseases in which acidity and oxidative damage in the body is a factor.

Larson, E. et. al. “New Insights into the Dementia Epidemic.” New England Journal of  Medicine 2013; 369:2275-2277 Web December 12, 2013 <http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMp1311405>.

9. Changing your diet to a healthy alkaline diet, and getting some exercise will reduce your chances of developing chronic diseases and dementia 

Many chronic diseases, including dementia can be prevented by choosing a healthy diet and lifestyle. This study showed that a few small changes will make a big difference!

Elwood, P et. al. Healthy Lifestyles Reduce the Incidence of Chronic Diseases and Dementia: Evidence from the Caerphilly Cohort Study. Plos One. Dec 9 2013. Web December 13, 2013. <http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0081877#pone-0081877-t001>

10. Sugar sweetened soda consumption exposes DNA to oxidative damage

Drinking sugar sweetened soda has been shown to cause premature oxidative damage to telomeres - protective protein caps over the DNA. This oxidative damage causes premature aging, and is linked to the development of degenerative disease.

Leung, C et al. Sugar-Sweetened Soda Consumption is Associated with Shorter Leukocyte Telomere Length among Healthy Adults. American Heart Association. 2014. Web, Oct 27, 2014 <http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/129/Suppl_1/AP079.short>

Frassetto, Lynda, and Ingrid Kohlstadt. "Treatment and Prevention of Kidney Stones: An Update." - American Family Physician. American Association of Family Physicians, 1 Dec. 2011. Web. 20 Jan. 2015. <http://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/1201/p1234.html>.

11. Nightshade vegetables bad for arthritis

Consumption of Nightshade vegetables have been shown to be linked with the pain and inflammation of arthritis.

Childers, N.F. "An Apparent Relation of Nightshades (Solanaceae) to Arthritis." An Apparent Relation of Nightshades (Solanaceae) to Arthritis. Journal of Neurological and Orthopedic Medical Surgery, 1 Jan. 1993. Web. 27 Jan. 2015. <http://www.noarthritis.com/research.htm>.

Sengupta, Pallav. "Potential Health Impacts of Hard Water." International Journal of Preventive Medicine. Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd, 1 Aug. 2013. Web. 27 July 2015. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3775162/>.

Fluoride Studies

Grandjean, Phillipe, and Phillip J. Landrigan. "Neurobehavioural Eff Ects of Developmental Toxicity." The Lancet. Lancet Neurology, 15 Feb. 2014. Web. 29 Feb. 2016. <http://www.thelancet.com/pdfs/journals/laneur/PIIS1474-4422(13)70278-3.pdf>.

Malin, Ashley J., and Christine Till. "Exposure to Fluoridated Water and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Prevalence among Children and Adolescents in the United States: An Ecological Association." Environmental Health. BioMed Central, 25 Feb. 2015. Web. 01 Mar. 2016. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4389999/>.

Y, Ding, and Et. Al. "The Relationships between Low Levels of Urine Fluoride on Children's Intelligence, Dental Fluorosis in Endemic Fluorosis Areas in Hulunbuir, Inner Mongolia, China." National Center for Biotechnology Information. U.S. National Library of Medicine, 25 Dec. 2010. Web. 01 Mar. 2016. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21237562>.

Acidic Water Studies

Wang, L, M Bassirir, and et al. "Hypochlorous Acid as a Potential Wound Care Agent." Journal of Burns and Wounds. Journal of Burns and Wounds, 11 Apr 2007. Web. 15 Aug 2013.

Desai, A., et al. "The efficacy and tolerability of electrolyzed oxidized water in treating mild to moderate acne." Cosmet Dermatol 17.2 (2004): 93-105.

Chlorination Studies 

Doyle, Timothy, Wei Zheng, and et al. "The Association of Drinking Water Source and Chlorination By-Products with Cancer Incidence among Postmenopausal Women in Iowa: A Prospective Cohort Study." PubMed NCBI. American Journal of Public Health, n.d. Web. 5 Jul 2013. <https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1380892/pdf/amjph00506-0090.pdf>.

Centers for disease control, . "Facts about Chlorine." Centers for disease control and prevention. Centers for disease control, 10 Apr 2013. Web. 5 Jul 2013. <http://www.bt.cdc.gov/agent/chlorine/basics/facts.asp>.

Bottled Water Studies

NRDC. “Bottled Water: Pure Drink or Pure Hype.” July 15, 2013. Web February 08, 2016, from <http://www.nrdc.org/water/drinking/bw/chap2.asp>.

Anti Aging

NAD+ repletion improves mitochondrial and stem cell function and enhances life span in mice

BY HONGBO ZHANG, DONGRYEOL RYU, YIBO WU, KARIM GARIANI, XU WANG, PEILING LUAN,DAVIDE D’AMICO, EDUARDO R. ROPELLE, MATTHIAS P. LUTOLF, RUEDI AEBERSOLD, KRISTINA SCHOONJANS, KEIR J. MENZIES, JOHAN AUWERX

PUBLISHED ONLINE28 APR 2016

Yan, Hanxu, and Et Al. "Extension of the Lifespan of Caenorhabditis Elegans by the Use of Electrolyzed Reduced Water." Taylor & Francis. Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry, 6 Apr. 2010. Web. 09 May 2016. <http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1271/bbb.100250>.

Yan, Hanxu, and Et Al. "Mechanism of the Lifespan Extension of Caenorhabditis Elegans by Electrolyzed Reduced Water-Participation of Pt Nanoparticles." Taylor & Francis. Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry, 12 Apr. 2011. Web. 09 May 2016. <http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1271/bbb.110072>.